Commit 70223cfc authored by Vesa Oikonen's avatar Vesa Oikonen
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title: Analysis of [C-11]PBR28
author: Vesa Oikonen, Jouni Tuisku
updated_at: 2021-04-23
updated_at: 2021-04-27
created_at: 2015-08-03
tags:
- Inflammation
......@@ -18,7 +18,8 @@ tags:
<p>PBR28 is a selective second-generation ligand with high affinity for the
<a href="./target_tspo.html">translocator protein (TSPO)</a>, formerly known as peripheral
benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of <a href="./target_inflammation.html">inflammation</a>.
benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of <a href="./mitochondria.html#TSPO">mitochondria</a> and
<a href="./target_inflammation.html">inflammation</a>.
Increased distribution volume of [<sup>11</sup>C]PBR28 has been observed in
<a href="./organ_brain.html">the brain</a> of baboons and humans after injection of <em>E. Coli</em>
lipopolysaccharide
......@@ -26,7 +27,7 @@ lipopolysaccharide
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511003112">Sandiego et al, 2015</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2014.11.003">Yoder et al, 2015</a>).
The cerebral artery occlusion model of neuroinflammation and <a href="./dis_stroke.html">stroke</a>
in rats has shown a localized increase in [<sup>11</sup>C]PBR28 SUV
in rats has shown a localized increase in [<sup>11</sup>C]PBR28 <a href="./model_suv.html">SUV</a>
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2006.09.093">Imaizumi et al, 2007</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-014-0970-y">T&oacute;th et al, 2016</a>),
and that increase could be reversed by injection of PK11195
......@@ -242,8 +243,8 @@ cerebellum as pseudo-reference region.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13550-016-0226-3">Nair et al (2016)</a> reported that the best
test-retest variability in AD study was obtained when using whole brain as the pseudo-reference.
Whole brain has been used as reference to calculate SUVR maps from data range 60-90 min in several
brain studies
Whole brain (not including the ventricles) has been used as reference to calculate SUVR maps from
data range 60-90 min in several brain studies
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu377">Loggia et al., 2015</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.01.009">Zürcher et al., 2015</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0433-1">Albrecht et al., 2021</a>).
......
---
title: Mitochondria
author: Vesa Oikonen
updated_at: 2021-03-26
updated_at: 2021-04-27
created_at: 2017-09-20
tags:
- Mitochondria
......@@ -226,7 +226,11 @@ tissues, and low levels in <a href="./organ_brain.html">the brain</a> and
<a href="./organ_liver.html">liver</a>. In the brain parenchyma TSPO is located in glial cells, and
has thus been used as a biomarker of activated glial cells. It can also be found in other
inflammatory cells. Generally, <a href="./target_tspo.html">TSPO</a> imaging might have potential in
studying the concentration of viable mitochondria in tissues.</p>
studying the concentration of viable mitochondria in tissues.
For instance, regional uptake of TSPO radioligand
<a href="./analysis_11c-pbr28.html">[<sup>11</sup>C]PBR28</a> was lower in subjects with autism
spectrum disorder in brain regions associated with sociocognitive processes
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0682-z">Zürcher et al., 2020</a>).</p>
<h3>P2X<sub>7</sub>R</h3>
......
---
title: TSPO
author: Vesa Oikonen
updated_at: 2021-04-19
updated_at: 2021-04-27
created_at: 2012-09-14
tags:
- TSPO
......@@ -14,19 +14,29 @@ tags:
<p>The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), earlier called peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)
and mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor, is a five transmembrane domain protein that is localized
mainly in steroid-synthesizing tissues. Secretory and glandular tissues, such as
<a href="./organ_adrenal_gland.html">adrenal glands</a>, pineal gland, salivary glands, and
olfactory epithelium contain high levels of TSPO; intermediate levels in renal and myocardial
tissues, and low levels in <a href="./organ_brain.html">the brain</a> and
<a href="./organ_liver.html">liver</a>
and mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor, is a five transmembrane domain protein.
TSPO is mainly situated in the outer <a href="./mitochondria.html">mitochondrial</a> membrane,
but it is also present in Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, nucleus, and on plasma membrane,
also in mature <a href="./rbc.html">human red cells</a>
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2010.06.013">Batarseh &amp; Papadopoulos, 2010</a>).
In mitochondria, TSPO may have role in transporting cholesterol into mitochondria,
and TSPO concentrations are high in steroid producing tissues.
TSPO ligands modulate mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics.</p>
<p>Secretory and glandular tissues, such as <a href="./organ_adrenal_gland.html">adrenal glands</a>,
pineal gland, salivary glands, and olfactory epithelium contain high levels of TSPO;
intermediate levels in <a href="./organ_kidney.html">renal</a> and
<a href="./organ_heart.html">myocardial</a> tissues, and
low levels in <a href="./organ_brain.html">the brain</a> and <a href="./organ_liver.html">liver</a>
(<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10581326">Gavish et al., 1999</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2010.06.013">Batarseh &amp; Papadopoulos, 2010</a>).
In the brain parenchyma TSPO is located in glial cells, and has thus been used
as a biomarker of activated glial cells
In the brain parenchyma TSPO is located in glial cells (microglia and astrocytes), and has thus been
used as a biomarker of activated glial cells
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.12.004">Chen &amp; Guilarte, 2008</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13139-017-0475-8">Alam et al., 2017</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s12149-020-01530-2">Nomura et al., 2021</a>).
Mitochondrial dysfunction or abnormal microglia autophagy may be seen as reduced TSPO expression
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0682-z">Zürcher et al., 2020</a>).
Outside of the brain, TSPO is expressed in macrophages, and could be targeted in
<a href="./target_inflammation.html">inflammation imaging</a>.</p>
......@@ -37,13 +47,6 @@ differentiation, and <a href="./ros.html">oxidative stress</a>, depending on the
TSPO has been found to be upregulated in certain <a href="./tumour.html#inflammation">tumours</a>.
</p>
<p>TSPO is mainly situated in the outer <a href="./mitochondria.html">mitochondrial</a> membrane,
but it is also present in Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, nucleus, and on plasma membrane,
also in mature <a href="./rbc.html">human red cells</a>
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2010.06.013">Batarseh &amp; Papadopoulos, 2010</a>).
In mitochondria, TSPO may have role in transporting cholesterol into mitochondria,
and TSPO concentrations are high in steroid producing tissues.
TSPO ligands modulate mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics.</p>
<p>In humans, <a name="rs6971">rs6971 polymorphism</a> in the TSPO gene affects the binding of
many TSPO ligands, and cholesterol.
......
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