Commit 737b1160 authored by Vesa Oikonen's avatar Vesa Oikonen
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<h1>Imaging of pain</h1>
<p>Acute pain is an adaptive physiological protective system against physical damage or injury.
Chronic pain (lasting over 3 months) can be viewed as a disease rather than a symptom.
The international association for the study of pain (IASP) defines three types of chronic pain:
<em>nociceptive pain</em> that arises from actual or threatened damage to non-neural tissue and is
due to the activation of nociceptors; <em>nociplastic pain</em> that arises from altered nociception
despite no clear evidence of actual or threatened tissue damage causing the activation of peripheral
nociceptors or evidence for disease or lesion of the somatosensory system causing the pain; and
<em>neuropathic pain</em> that is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system
(<a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10616/47449">Sandström, 2021</a>).
<a href="./dis_arthritis.html">Rheumatoid arthritis</a> (RA) is a nociceptive chronic peripheral
inflammatory pain disorder.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a nociplastic, chronic widespread pain disorder, characterized by a change in
function of nociceptive pathways, leading to generalized hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli.</p>
<p>The pathways and brain regions involved in pain processing are relatively well-characterised,
and the neural mechanisms involved in pain processing can be studied using fMRI, PET, MEG, and EEG.
Pain-induced activation in the brain can be studied using <a href="./model_perfusion.html">perfusion</a>
......@@ -34,6 +49,13 @@ Inflammation in pain has been studied using <a href="./target_tspo.html">TSPO</a
<h2><a name="TSPO">TSPO</a></h2>
<p><a href="./target_tspo.html">TSPO</a> expression in the central nervous system is normally low,
but can be upregulated in glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) during neuroinflammation.
To specifically study the activation of astrocytes, MAO-B may be a better target
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-9324-2_33">Ekblom et al., 1994</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2010.10.013">Gulyás et al, 2011</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2018.09.018">Albrecht et al., 2019</a>).</p>
<p>Regional brain uptake increases of <a href="./analysis_11c-pbr28.html">[<sup>11</sup>C]PBR28</a>
have been observed in patients with chronic low back pain, ALS, and fibromyalgia
(Albrecht et al. <a href="https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.116.178335">2018</a> and
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