Commit 6ca77aef authored by Vesa Oikonen's avatar Vesa Oikonen
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title: TSPO
author: Vesa Oikonen
updated_at: 2021-04-28
updated_at: 2021-06-07
created_at: 2012-09-14
tags:
- TSPO
......@@ -34,7 +34,9 @@ In the brain parenchyma TSPO is located in glial cells (microglia and astrocytes
used as a biomarker of activated glial cells
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.12.004">Chen &amp; Guilarte, 2008</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13139-017-0475-8">Alam et al., 2017</a>;
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s12149-020-01530-2">Nomura et al., 2021</a>).
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s12149-020-01530-2">Nomura et al., 2021</a>), but it is present
also in the neurovascular unit, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and red blood
cells (<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05248-9">Wimberley et al., 2021</a>).
Mitochondrial dysfunction or abnormal microglia autophagy may be seen as reduced TSPO expression
(<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0682-z">Zürcher et al., 2020</a>).
Outside of the brain, TSPO is expressed in macrophages, and could be targeted in
......@@ -129,9 +131,9 @@ model of MS</a>, the healthy hemisphere can be used as reference region
model</a> (SRTM) can be applied, although an ideal <a href="./model_reference_tissue.html">reference
tissue</a> (containing no TSPO) is not available. A clustering method has been introduced to produce
a reference curve for brain [<sup>11</sup>C]-(<em>R</em>)-PK11195 studies
(<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17204713">Turkheimer et al., 2007</a>),
and the experiences of using this method in Turku have been promising
(Tuisku J, personal communication).</p>
(<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17204713">Turkheimer et al., 2007</a>).
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05248-9">Wimberley et al (2021)</a> have reviewed the
brain TSPO quantification methods and their limitations.</p>
<p>TSPO level in the normal brain is very low, and thus the blood vessel uptake of TSPO ligands
becomes predominant. In <a href="./dis_ad.html">AD</a> brain, vascular fibrosis decreases the size
......@@ -279,4 +281,9 @@ The methodology of TSPO imaging with positron emission tomography.
<em>Biochem Soc Trans.</em> 2015; 43: 586-592.
doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20150058">10.1042/BST20150058</a>.</p>
<p>Wimberley C, Lavisse S, Hillmer A, Hinz R, Turkheimer F, Zanotti-Fregonara P.
Kinetic modeling and parameter estimation of TSPO PET imaging in the human brain.
<em>Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging</em> 2021 (in press).
doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05248-9">10.1007/s00259-021-05248-9</a>.</p>
<br>
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